Memorials & Monuments
Types of Markers
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Types of
Types of Markers


Wedge stone

Bevel Marker

Upright stone
Types of Markers
Gravestone Materials
Gravestone Making Materials Over the Years

Fieldstones. The earliest markers for graves were natural fieldstone, some
unmarked and others decorated or incised using a metal awl. Typical motifs
for the carving included a symbol and the deceased's name and age.

Sandstone is durable yet soft enough to carve easily. Some sandstone
markers are so well preserved that individual chisel marks can be discerned
in the carving, while others have delaminated and crumbled into dust.
Delaminating occurs when moisture gets between the layers that make up the
sandstone. As it freezes and expands the layers flake off. In the 1600s
sandstone replaced fieldstones in Colonial America.
Yorkstone was a
common sandstone material used in England.

Granite is a hard stone and requires skill to carve by hand. Modern methods
of carving include using computer-controlled rotary bits and sandblasting
over a rubber stencil. Leaving the letters, numbers and emblems exposed on
the stone, the blaster can create virtually any kind of artwork or epitaph.

Iron grave markers and decorations were popular during the Victorian era in
the United Kingdom and elsewhere, often being produced by specialist
foundries or the local blacksmith. Cast iron headstones have lasted for
generations while wrought ironwork often only survives in a rusted or
eroded state. Cast iron headstones from the 1880’s.

Slate can have a pleasing texture but is slightly porous and prone to
delamination. It takes lettering well, often highlighted with white paint or

Marble & Limestone
Both limestone and marble take carving
well. Marble is a recrystallised form of
limestone. Both slowly dissolve when
exposed to the mild acid in rainwater
which can make inscriptions unreadable
over time.
Portland stone was a type of
limestone commonly used in England;
after weathering the fossiliferous
deposits tend to be revealed on the surface. Marble became a popular
material from the early 1800s although its extra cost limited its appeal.

White bronze. Actually sand cast zinc, but called white bronze for marketing
purposes. Almost all, if not all, zinc grave markers were made by the
Monumental Bronze Company of Bridgeport, CT, between 1874 and 1914.
They are in cemeteries of the period all across the U. S. and Canada. They
were sold as more durable than marble, about 1/3 less expensive and

This was a popular material during the Georgian and Victorian era, and
almost certainly before, in Great Britain and elsewhere. Some could be very
ornate, although few survive beyond 50–100 years due to natural

Natural Markers
Planting, trees or shrubs, particularly roses, may be planted, especially to
mark the location of ashes. This may be accompanied by a small inscribed
metal or wooden marker.
Personalized Monuments are Rising in Popularity
Personalized Monuments
In today’s culture, personalization is becoming increasingly popular. Many
consumers say it plays a significant role in their funeral and memorial
choices. As they desire to create a monument that represents and celebrates
their lives. Photos, and phrases are changing the way your monument can

Photo images have the ability to
transform a monument into a visual
life story. With pictures you can
include all chapters of a person’s
life such as childhood, military  
service, special honors, even vacations or family snapshots. Pictures of
your children, your favorite vacation spot, your car, your home, any photos
that have great significance to the deceased and to his or her loved ones.

Monuments today have the ability to give more than just birth and death
dates. Many people choose to add things such as their favorite quote, a line
from a song, a favorite poem, a religious verse, or even special messages to
their loved ones.

Whether it’s by adding imagery, a photo, or additional information
personalized monuments offer families more information about their past
and new interesting perspective while visiting a loved one’s grave site.
Personalized Memorials
A tomb, especially one that is large or elaborate.
The name is derived from the marble tomb built
for the Carian ruler Mausolus at Halicarnassus,
Asia Minor, now Turkey.

In modern times, most mausoleums resemble a
small house. Many with elaborate stain glass
windows and artistic sculptures. Often the tomb
reflects the wealth of those inside.
a) Modern Mausoleum (Dowd Family)
b) Mausoleum from Wesleyan Cemetery
in Cincinnati, Ohio
Obelisk- A square shaft with pyramidal top,
usually monumental.

Egyptian obelisks are always monolithic and
slightly tapering.

Obelisks represent "eternal life", often
associated with a Masonic symbol.


Grave stele of a little girl, ca.
450–440 B.C. Greek. The
Metropolitan Museum of Art,
New York. Fletcher Fund, 1927
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Accent Stone

"A heart of gold
stopped beating,
two willing
hands at rest,
God broke our
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Family Stones
Alter Tombs
Foot stones
Stele is a term for erect stones that are often what
are now called gravestones.
Ledger Stone
Markers at the Head of the Grave
Alter Tombs
Statues of all types adorn the graves of the  
deceased around the world. Many are elaborte  
works of art that rival some of the greatest
A pleurant (weeper) is a statue placed at the
graveside to guard or mourn for a loved one
Angel Wind
Our memorial wind
chimes are the
perfect sympathy
gift to comfort
someone at their
time of loss.

With the inscription
engraved on both
sides, our memorial
wind chimes will
respectfully remind
the recipient of
their lost loved one
for years to come.